Research at supports research through participation in standardization, academic research, and providing datasets to researchers in academia and industry.



We participate in the IETF standardization process and have contributed to a number of DNS-related RFCs.

Selected RFCs:

  • W. Kumari, E. Hunt, R. Arends, W. Hardaker and D. Lawrence 2020. Extended DNS Errors. RFC8914.
  • Z. Hu, L. Zhu, J. Heidemann, A. Mankin, D. Wessels and P. Hoffman 2016. Specification for DNS over Transport Layer Security (TLS) . Technical Report 7858. Internet Request For Comments.

Academic Research

Many questions around providing DNS and operating critical infrastructure lead to interesting academic questions. When appropriate we work with students and researchers at USC and elsewhere and publish the results to share with the world.

Selected publications:

  • A S M Rizvi, Jelena Mirkovic, John Heidemann, Wes Hardaker, and Robert Story 2023. Defending Root DNS Servers Against DDoS Using Layered Defenses. Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Communications Systems and Netorwks (COMSNETS) (Bengaluru, India, Jan. 2023).
  • Tarang Saluja, Johnh Heidemann and Yuri Pradkin 2022. Differences in Monitoring the DNS Root Over IPv4 and IPv6. Proceedings of the National Symposium for NSF REU Research in Data Science, Systems, and Security (Portland, OR, USA, Dec. 2022), 194–203.
  • Liang Zhu, Zi Hu, John Heidemann, Duane Wessels, Allison Mankin and Nikita Somaiya 2015. Connection-Oriented DNS to Improve Privacy and Security. Proceedings of the 36th IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy (San Jose, Californa, USA, May 2015), 171–186.